Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex PurposeThe objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults.MethodQuantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a computer-controlled linear servo motor to impose a series ... Research Note
Research Note  |   October 01, 2009
Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex
 
Author Notes
  • Contact author: Steven M. Barlow, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, Communication Neuroscience Laboratories, University of Kansas, 1000 Sunnyside Avenue, Rm. 3001, Lawrence, KS 66045-7555. E-mail: smbarlow@ku.edu.
Article Information
Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Research Note   |   October 01, 2009
Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1353-1359. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0101)
History: Received May 15, 2008 , Accepted December 10, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1353-1359. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0101)
History: Received May 15, 2008; Accepted December 10, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

PurposeThe objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults.

MethodQuantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a computer-controlled linear servo motor to impose a series of tensile displacements over a span of approximately 24 mm at the oral angle in 20 healthy young male adults. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm nonparticipation or passive muscle state. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (ΔF) and oral span (ΔX), was modeled with regression techniques and subsequently compared to previously reported perioral stiffness data for female adults.

ResultsMultilevel regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic relation between the perioral stiffness and interangle span; however, no significant difference was found between adult males and females.

ConclusionThese normative measures will have application to future studies designed to objectively assess the effects of pathology (i.e., progressive neuromotor disease, traumatic brain insult) and intervention (pharmacologic, neurosurgical, and reconstructive surgery of the face [i.e., cleft lip, trauma, missile injuries]) on facial animation and speech kinematics.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported in part by the Sutherland Foundation, Grants NIH R01 DC003311 (awarded to Steven M. Barlow), NIH R01 DE13814 (awarded to Carroll-Ann Trotman), and NIH P30 DC005803 (awarded to Mabel L. Rice). Special gratitude is expressed to Douglas Kieweg and Lalit Venkatesan for assistance in digital signal processing.
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