Measurement of Speech Effort During Fluency-Inducing Conditions in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter PurposeTo investigate the effects of 4 fluency-inducing (FI) conditions on self-rated speech effort and other variables in adults who stutter and in normally fluent controls.MethodTwelve adults with persistent stuttering and 12 adults who had never stuttered each completed 4 ABA-format experiments. During A phases, participants read aloud normally. During each ... Article
Article  |   October 01, 2009
Measurement of Speech Effort During Fluency-Inducing Conditions in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Roger J. Ingham
    University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, and University of Texas at San Antonio
  • Anne K. Bothe
    University of Georgia, Athens
  • Erin Jang
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Lauren Yates
    University of Georgia, Athens
  • John Cotton
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Irene Seybold
    University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Contact author: Roger J. Ingham, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106; E-mail: rjingham@speech.ucsb.edu.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech
Article   |   October 01, 2009
Measurement of Speech Effort During Fluency-Inducing Conditions in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1286-1301. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0181)
History: Received August 29, 2008 , Revised November 11, 2008 , Accepted December 10, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1286-1301. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0181)
History: Received August 29, 2008; Revised November 11, 2008; Accepted December 10, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 14

PurposeTo investigate the effects of 4 fluency-inducing (FI) conditions on self-rated speech effort and other variables in adults who stutter and in normally fluent controls.

MethodTwelve adults with persistent stuttering and 12 adults who had never stuttered each completed 4 ABA-format experiments. During A phases, participants read aloud normally. During each B phase, they read aloud in 1 of 4 FI conditions: auditory masking, chorus reading, whispering, and rhythmic speech. Dependent variables included self-judged speech effort and observer-judged stuttering frequency, speech rate, and speech naturalness.

ResultsFor the persons who stuttered, FI conditions reduced stuttering and speech effort, but only for chorus reading were these improvements obtained without diminishing speech naturalness or speaking rate. By contrast, speech effort increased during all FI conditions for adults who did not stutter.

ConclusionsSelf-rated speech effort differentiated the effects of 4 FI conditions on speech performance for adults who stuttered, with chorus reading best approximating normally fluent speech. More generally, self-ratings of speech effort appeared to constitute an independent, reliable, and validly interpretable dimension of fluency that may be useful in the measurement and treatment of stuttering.

Acknowledgments
Parts of this study were completed with the support of RO1 Grant DC007893 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and a University of California, Santa Barbara, Senate Research Grant, both awarded to the first author. Special thanks are offered to Denise Davis, Keziah Morrison, Chisa Onaniwu, and Lauren Robins for their assistance during this study.
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