What Influences Literacy Outcome in Children With Speech Sound Disorder? PurposeIn this study, the authors evaluated literacy outcome in children with histories of speech sound disorder (SSD) who were characterized along 2 dimensions: broader language function and persistence of SSD. In previous studies, authors have demonstrated that each dimension relates to literacy but have not disentangled their effects.MethodsTwo groups of ... Article
Article  |   October 01, 2009
What Influences Literacy Outcome in Children With Speech Sound Disorder?
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Robin L. Peterson
    University of Denver, Denver, CO
  • Bruce F. Pennington
    University of Denver, Denver, CO
  • Lawrence D. Shriberg
    University of Denver, Denver, CO
  • Richard Boada
    University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center
  • Contact author: Robin L. Peterson, Department of Psychology, University of Denver, 2155 South Race Street, Denver, CO 80208. E-mail: rpeters6@du.edu.
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Special Populations / Psychogenic Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language
Article   |   October 01, 2009
What Influences Literacy Outcome in Children With Speech Sound Disorder?
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1175-1188. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0024)
History: Received January 28, 2008 , Revised June 20, 2008 , Accepted February 9, 2009
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2009, Vol. 52, 1175-1188. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0024)
History: Received January 28, 2008; Revised June 20, 2008; Accepted February 9, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 53

PurposeIn this study, the authors evaluated literacy outcome in children with histories of speech sound disorder (SSD) who were characterized along 2 dimensions: broader language function and persistence of SSD. In previous studies, authors have demonstrated that each dimension relates to literacy but have not disentangled their effects.

MethodsTwo groups of children (86 SSD and 37 controls) were recruited at ages 5–6 and were followed longitudinally. The authors report the literacy of children with SSD at ages 7–9, compared with controls and national norms, and relative to language skill and SSD persistence (both measured at age 5–6).

ResultsThe SSD group demonstrated elevated rates of reading disability. Language skill but not SSD persistence predicted later literacy. However, SSD persistence was associated with phonological awareness impairments. Phonological awareness alone predicted literacy outcome less well than a model that also included syntax and nonverbal IQ.

ConclusionsResults support previous literature findings that SSD history predicts literacy difficulties and that the association is strongest for SSD + language impairment (LI). Magnitude of phonological impairment alone did not determine literacy outcome, as predicted by the core phonological deficit hypothesis. Instead, consistent with a multiple deficit approach, phonological deficits appeared to interact with other cognitive factors in literacy development.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Grant HD049027 from the National Institute of Health and Human Development. The authors are grateful to Rachel Tunick and Nancy Raitano-Lee for their work on the initial phase of this longitudinal study and to Christa Hutaff-Lee, Irina Kaminer, Lauren McGrath, Erin Phinney, Jenni Rosenberg, and Jennifer Yerks for their work collecting the data reported here as well as for their comments on an earlier draft of this article.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access