Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength PurposeTo examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements ... Article/Report
Article/Report  |   August 01, 2009
Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Heather M. Clark
    Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
  • Katy O’Brien
    Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
  • Aimee Calleja
    Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
  • Sarah Newcomb Corrie
    Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
  • Contact author: Heather M. Clark, Department of Language, Reading, and Exceptionalities, Appalachian State University, Box 32085, Boone NC 28608. E-mail: clarkhm@appstate.edu.
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Speech
Article/Report   |   August 01, 2009
Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2009, Vol. 52, 1034-1047. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0062)
History: Received March 19, 2008 , Accepted November 1, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2009, Vol. 52, 1034-1047. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0062)
History: Received March 19, 2008; Accepted November 1, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 28

PurposeTo examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in other directions? (c) Were differential training effects observed for participants completing exercises sequentially (in isolation) versus concurrently (several exercises in combination)? (d) Were strength gains maintained after exercise was discontinued?

MethodsParticipants were 39 healthy adults assigned to sequential or concurrent lingual strength training. Lingual exercise (elevation, protrusion, and/or lateralization) was conducted for 9 weeks, with lingual strength and cheek strength (control variable) assessed weekly.

ResultsAll lingual strength measures increased with training, but cheek strength remained unchanged. Training effects were not related to training condition (sequential vs. concurrent), nor were specificity effects observed for direction of exercise. Significant decreases in lingual strength were noted 2–4 weeks after exercise was discontinued.

ConclusionsThe findings replicate those of earlier studies demonstrating that lingual strength may be increased with a variety of exercise protocols and confirm that detraining effects may be observed when training is discontinued. The findings further suggest that the lingual musculature may demonstrate less dramatic training specificity than what has been reported for skeletal muscles.

Acknowledgments
This project was supported by a grant from the Appalachian State University Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Nancy Pearl Solomon and Erich Luschei, who offered thoughtful insights into the development of the experiment and the resulting article. We thank Lindsay Wheeler, who processed the raw data. Finally, we are most indebted to the participants who generously volunteered their time for this experiment.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access