Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project Word-Initial Consonant Clusters Research Article
Research Article  |   October 01, 1993
Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ann Bosma Smit
    Kansas State University Manhattan
  • Contact author: Ann Bosma Smit, Program in Speech Pathology/ Audiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-3503. E-mail: ANNSMT[@]KSUVM.KSU.EDU
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   October 01, 1993
Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 1993, Vol. 36, 931-947. doi:10.1044/jshr.3605.931
History: Received March 9, 1992 , Accepted February 19, 1993
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 1993, Vol. 36, 931-947. doi:10.1044/jshr.3605.931
History: Received March 9, 1992; Accepted February 19, 1993

The errors on word-initial consonant clusters made by children in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project (Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990) were tabulated by age range and frequency. The error data show considerable support for Greenlee’s (1974)  stages in the acquisition of clusters: the youngest children show cluster reduction, somewhat older children show cluster preservation but with errors on one or more of the cluster elements, and the oldest children generally show correct production. These stages extended to three-element clusters as well. Typical cluster reduction errors were (a) reduction to the obstruent in obstruent-plus-approximant clusters and (b) reduction to the second element in /s/-clusters. When clusters were preserved, but one member was in error, the error was typically the same as for the singleton consonant. Cluster errors are discussed in terms of theories of phonologic development, including open genetic programs and feature geometry. These data are expected to be useful in evaluation and treatment of disorders of phonology.

Acknowledgments
The original study from which these data were taken was supported by contracts between the Iowa Department of Education and the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at The University of Iowa, which was the author’s affiliation at the time, and by a contract between the Nebraska Department of Education and the Department of speech at Kansas State University. I thank the speech-language pathologists in Iowa and Nebraska who collected these data, and the adminstrators who made this study possible, for their talent, persistence, and patience. I am grateful also to Doug Pedersen, who wrote the software that made tabulation of the error data possible, and to John Bernthal, Carol Stoel-Gammon, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. Responsibility for errors of fact or interpretation remains mine alone. The detailed error data for each sex and each age group are available to other investigators by request.
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