Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project Consonant Singletons Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 1993
Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ann Bosma Smit
    Kansas State University Manhattan
  • Contact author: Ann Bosma Smit, PhD, Program in Speech Pathology/Audiology, Department of Speech, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-3503. E-mail: annsmit@ksuvm.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 1993
Phonologic Error Distributions in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1993, Vol. 36, 533-547. doi:10.1044/jshr.3603.533
History: Received March 9, 1992 , Accepted October 30, 1992
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1993, Vol. 36, 533-547. doi:10.1044/jshr.3603.533
History: Received March 9, 1992; Accepted October 30, 1992

The errors on consonant singletons made by children in the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project (Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990) were tabulated by age range and frequency. The prominent error types can usually be described as phonological processes, but there are other common errors as well, especially distortions of liquids and fricatives. Moreover, some of the relevant phonological processes appear to be restricted in the range of consonants or word-positions to which they apply. A metric based on frequency of use is proposed for determining that an error type is or is not atypical. Changes in frequency of error types over the age range are examined to determine if certain atypical error types are likely to be developmental, that is, likely to self-correct as the child matures. Finally, the clinical applications of these data for evaluation and intervention are explored.

Acknowledgments
The original study from which these data were taken was supported by contracts between the Iowa Department of Education and the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at The University of Iowa, which was the author’s affiliation at the time, and by a contract between the Nebraska Department of Education and the Department of Speech at Kansas State University. I thank the speech-language pathologists in Iowa and Nebraska who collected these data, and the administrators who made this study possible, for their talent, persistence, and patience. I am grateful also to Doug Petersen, who wrote the software that made tabulation of the error data possible, and to John Bernthal, Carol Stoel-Gammon, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. Responsibility for errors of fact or interpretation remains mine alone. The detailed error data for each sex and each age group are available to other investigators on request.
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