Spasmodic Dysphonia, Whether and Where Results of Seven Years of Research Research Article
Research Article  |   September 01, 1989
Spasmodic Dysphonia, Whether and Where
 
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Research Articles
Research Article   |   September 01, 1989
Spasmodic Dysphonia, Whether and Where
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1989, Vol. 32, 541-555. doi:10.1044/jshr.3203.541
History: Received April 4, 1988 , Accepted January 11, 1989
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1989, Vol. 32, 541-555. doi:10.1044/jshr.3203.541
History: Received April 4, 1988; Accepted January 11, 1989

Two questions are addressed in this presentation and integration of experimental data from seven years of research. They are (a) is spasmodic dysphonia (SD) a neurologic disorder; and (b) if so, where in the nervous system does the dysfunction have its locus? The conclusion is that SD is a supranuclear movement disorder primarily, but not exclusively, affecting the larynx. For over 50% of the subjects, isolated, multifocal, cortical lesions can be identified, specifically in left frontal/temporal cortex (perisylvian region), medial frontal cortex, and right posterior temporal/parietal cortex. Twenty-five percent have mixed subcortical and cortical pathology. Seven percent manifest subcortical lesions alone. For 16%, neither cortical nor subcortical structural or functional lesions are identified. Three etiologic processes that could produce mild multiple cortical and subcortical lesions are closed head injury, multi-infarct microvascular disease, and exposure to neurotoxins. These processes are discussed with reference to the population studied.

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