Stuttering A Disorder of Movement Research Article
Research Article  |   March 01, 1980
Stuttering
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Gerald Zimmermann
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   March 01, 1980
Stuttering
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, March 1980, Vol. 23, 122-136. doi:10.1044/jshr.2301.122
History: Received May 22, 1978 , Accepted February 15, 1979
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, March 1980, Vol. 23, 122-136. doi:10.1044/jshr.2301.122
History: Received May 22, 1978; Accepted February 15, 1979

Based on the data and discussion in the two preceding papers a preliminary model for disfluency is proposed. Stuttering is identified as movement patterns associated with perceptually judged disfluencies. It is suggested that the speech structures operate within certain ranges of variability in terms of their movement parameters and interar- ticulator temporal and spatial relations. This variability may be influenced by emotional, perceptual and/or physiological events. When the "normal" ranges are exceeded, the afferent nerve impulses generated alter the gains of associated brainstem reflexes. Alter- ing of the reflex gains throws the articulatory system out of balance and a breakdown in behavior occurs, often manifested as oscillations or static positioning. The influence of physiological and environmental variables on neuromotor processes leading to these pat- terns is emphasized. The model suggested has been developed from inferences from movement patterns of the upper articulators. Thus, the patterns discussed involve these structures. It is suggested, however, that an understanding of the many behaviors as- sociated with stuttering will be understood only by analyzing the behavioral and neurophysiologicaI interactions among the respiratory, laryngeal, and supraglottal struc- ures.

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