Language-Specific Effects of Task Demands on the Manifestation of Specific Language Impairment: A Comparison of English and Icelandic Purpose Previous research has indicated that the manifestation of specific language impairment (SLI) varies according to factors such as language, age, and task. This study examined the effect of task demands on language production in children with SLI cross-linguistically. Method Icelandic- and English-speaking school-age children with SLI and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2008
Language-Specific Effects of Task Demands on the Manifestation of Specific Language Impairment: A Comparison of English and Icelandic
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elin Thordardottir
    McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, and ReykjavíkurAkademían, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • Contact author: Elin Thordardottir, School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, McGill University, 1266 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A8 Canada. E-mail: elin.thordardottir@mcgill.ca.
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2008
Language-Specific Effects of Task Demands on the Manifestation of Specific Language Impairment: A Comparison of English and Icelandic
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2008, Vol. 51, 922-937. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/068)
History: Received February 2, 2007 , Revised July 14, 2007 , Accepted January 7, 2008
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, August 2008, Vol. 51, 922-937. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/068)
History: Received February 2, 2007; Revised July 14, 2007; Accepted January 7, 2008
Web of Science® Times Cited: 40

Purpose Previous research has indicated that the manifestation of specific language impairment (SLI) varies according to factors such as language, age, and task. This study examined the effect of task demands on language production in children with SLI cross-linguistically.

Method Icelandic- and English-speaking school-age children with SLI and normal language (NL) peers (n = 42) were administered measures of verbal working memory. Spontaneous language samples were collected in contexts that vary in task demands: conversation, narration, and expository discourse. The effect of the context-related task demands on the accuracy of grammatical inflections was examined.

Results Children with SLI in both language groups scored significantly lower than their NL peers in verbal working memory. Nonword repetition scores correlated with morphological accuracy. In both languages, mean length of utterance (MLU) varied systematically across sampling contexts. Context exerted a significant effect on the accuracy of grammatical inflection in English only. Error rates were higher overall in English than in Icelandic, but whether the difference was significant depended on the sampling context. Errors in Icelandic involved verb and noun phrase inflection to a similar extent.

Conclusions The production of grammatical morphology appears to be more taxing for children with SLI who speak English than for those who speak Icelandic. Thus, whereas children with SLI in both language groups evidence deficits in language processing, cross-linguistic differences are seen in which linguistic structures are vulnerable when processing load is increased. Future research should carefully consider the effect of context on children’s language performance.

Acknowledgments
This research was funded by grants awarded to the author by The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and Rannsóknarráð íslands—The Icelandic Centre for Research (RANNíS). The author acknowledges the assistance of Ester Sighvatsdóttir, Valgerður ólafsdóttir, Rebecca Naves, Julia Levy, and Mahchid Namazi. Many thanks to the children and parents who participated in the study.
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