Labial and Mandibular Dynamics during the Production of Bilabial Consonants: Preliminary Observations Simultaneous recordings of upper lip, lower lip, and jaw movements concomitant with intramuscular electromyography were obtained from five subjects during the production of VCV tokens where V = /i/, /ε/, and /æ/ and C = /p/, /b/, and /m/. The temporal sequencing of muscle activity from major elevators and depressors ... Research Article
Research Article  |   September 01, 1973
Labial and Mandibular Dynamics during the Production of Bilabial Consonants: Preliminary Observations
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Harvey M. Sussman
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
  • Peter F. MacNeilage
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
  • Robert J. Hanson
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   September 01, 1973
Labial and Mandibular Dynamics during the Production of Bilabial Consonants: Preliminary Observations
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1973, Vol. 16, 397-420. doi:10.1044/jshr.1603.397
History: Received May 1, 1972 , Accepted January 11, 1973
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, September 1973, Vol. 16, 397-420. doi:10.1044/jshr.1603.397
History: Received May 1, 1972; Accepted January 11, 1973

Simultaneous recordings of upper lip, lower lip, and jaw movements concomitant with intramuscular electromyography were obtained from five subjects during the production of VCV tokens where V = /i/, /ε/, and /æ/ and C = /p/, /b/, and /m/. The temporal sequencing of muscle activity from major elevators and depressors of the lips and jaw was determined and incorporated into a preliminary description of the motor control of the bilabial gesture. Magnitudes of articulator displacement and velocity and electromyographic data revealed a trend among the bilabial consonants so that the voiceless stop /p/ was produced with the highest level of preocclusion activity, and the nasal consonant /m/, with the highest level of postocclusion activity. Production of the three stop cognates involved a complementary contribution of aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces in the achievement of the necessary upper articulatory maneuvers. A left-to-right coarticulation effect for jaw depression whereby the EMG level related to V2 was reduced as V1 lowered was shown to span the medial stop consonant. A right-to-left coarticulation effect was observed in one speaker whereby jaw elevation was inversely related to the openness of V2. Such an anticipatory maneuver was contradictory to more immediate phonetic goals and necessitated neuromuscular compensatory adjustments of the lower lip.

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