Response Time in 14-Year-Olds With Language Impairment Purpose To determine whether children with language impairment were slower than typically developing peers at age 14, and whether slowing, if present, was similar across task domains; whether differences in response time (RT) across domains were the same for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and nonspecific language impairment (NLI); ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 14, 2016
Response Time in 14-Year-Olds With Language Impairment
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Carol A. Miller
    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
  • Laurence B. Leonard
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Robert V. Kail
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Xuyang Zhang
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • J. Bruce Tomblin
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • David J. Francis
    University of Houston, Houston, TX
  • Contact author: Carol A. Miller, 110 Moore Building, Communication Sciences and Disorders, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-3100. E-mail: cam47@psu.edu
Article Information
Language Disorders / Specific Language Impairment / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 14, 2016
Response Time in 14-Year-Olds With Language Impairment
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, November 2016, Vol. 49, 712-728. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2006/052)
History: Received October 4, 2004 , Revised May 16, 2005 , Accepted November 28, 2005
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, November 2016, Vol. 49, 712-728. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2006/052)
History: Received October 4, 2004; Revised May 16, 2005; Accepted November 28, 2005
Web of Science® Times Cited: 44

Purpose To determine whether children with language impairment were slower than typically developing peers at age 14, and whether slowing, if present, was similar across task domains; whether differences in response time (RT) across domains were the same for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and nonspecific language impairment (NLI); and whether RT performance at age 9 predicted performance at age 14.

Method Fourteen-year-old children with SLI (n = 20), NLI (n = 15), and typical development (NLD; n = 31) were administered several linguistic and nonlinguistic speeded tasks. The children had received the same tasks at age 9. RT performance was examined.

Results Both the SLI and the NLI groups were significantly slower than the NLD group in motor, nonverbal cognitive, and language task domains, and there was no significant difference among domains. Individual analyses showed that most, but not all, children with SLI and NLI were slower than the NLD group mean. Slowing at age 9 and age 14 were moderately correlated.

Conclusions The results suggest that slow RT is a persistent characteristic of many children with language impairment; however, the nature of the relationship between RT and language performance requires further investigation.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by Grant P50 DC02746-09 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. We are most grateful to the outstanding research team of the Child Language Research Center at the University of Iowa and to the young people and their families who participated.
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