Effects of Elicitation Task Variables on Speech Production by Children With Cochlear Implants Given the interest in comparing speech production development in children with normal hearing and hearing impairment, it is important to evaluate how variables within speech elicitation tasks can differentially affect the acoustics of speech production for these groups. In a first experiment, children (6–14 years old) with cochlear implants produced ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2007
Effects of Elicitation Task Variables on Speech Production by Children With Cochlear Implants
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elizabeth A. McCleary
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Dana L. Ide-Helvie
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE
  • Andrew J. Lotto
    University of Texas at Austin
  • Arlene Earley Carney
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • Maureen B. Higgins
    Boys Town National Research Hospital
  • Dr. Maureen Higgins, now deceased, was responsible for the idea and study design for this article.
    Dr. Maureen Higgins, now deceased, was responsible for the idea and study design for this article.×
  • Contact author: Elizabeth A. McCleary, Lied Learning and Technology Center, Boys Town National Research Hospital, 425 North 30th Street, Omaha, NE 68131. E-mail: mccleary_in@netzero.com.
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2007
Effects of Elicitation Task Variables on Speech Production by Children With Cochlear Implants
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2007, Vol. 50, 83-96. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/007)
History: Received November 5, 2005 , Revised March 25, 2006 , Accepted May 3, 2006
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2007, Vol. 50, 83-96. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/007)
History: Received November 5, 2005; Revised March 25, 2006; Accepted May 3, 2006

Given the interest in comparing speech production development in children with normal hearing and hearing impairment, it is important to evaluate how variables within speech elicitation tasks can differentially affect the acoustics of speech production for these groups. In a first experiment, children (6–14 years old) with cochlear implants produced a set of monosyllabic words either in isolation or while simultaneously signing the word. Acoustical analyses indicated no change in word duration, voice onset time, intensity, or fundamental frequency between isolated and simultaneous signing conditions. In a second experiment, the same children verbally repeated words that were signed by a video model. The model either signed with inflection or without. Words repeated after inflected models were higher in fundamental frequency and intensity and were more intelligible. In addition, children with poorer speech perception skills sometimes produced the monosyllables as 2 syllables, but this only occurred for words that had multiple sign movements. The results have implications for the comparison of speech development between children with normal hearing and those with hearing impairment.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by research grant R01DC004559 (awarded to Maureen B. Higgins) from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. We are grateful to the families of the 14 children who participated in this study. We would like to thank Edward Carney for his programming and technical assistance with the administration of the MPPT and the word intelligibility testing, Jennifer Main and Yingjiu Nie for their assessment of normal listeners in the intelligibility portion of the study, and Kevin Williams for his assistance in the production of the sign videotape.
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