The Role of Selected Lexical Factors on Confrontation Naming Accuracy, Speed, and Fluency in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lexical access in adults who stutter (AWS) differs from that in people who do not stutter. Specifically, the authors examined the role of 3 lexical factors on naming speed, accuracy, and fluency: word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. If ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2007
The Role of Selected Lexical Factors on Confrontation Naming Accuracy, Speed, and Fluency in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rochelle S. Newman
    University of Maryland
  • Nan Bernstein Ratner
    University of Maryland
  • Contact author: Rochelle S. Newman, Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, 0100 Lefrak Hall, College Park, MD 20742. E-mail: rnewman@hesp.umd.edu.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Language / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2007
The Role of Selected Lexical Factors on Confrontation Naming Accuracy, Speed, and Fluency in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2007, Vol. 50, 196-213. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/016)
History: Received September 22, 2005 , Revised January 18, 2006 , Accepted May 25, 2006
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, February 2007, Vol. 50, 196-213. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/016)
History: Received September 22, 2005; Revised January 18, 2006; Accepted May 25, 2006
Web of Science® Times Cited: 32

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lexical access in adults who stutter (AWS) differs from that in people who do not stutter. Specifically, the authors examined the role of 3 lexical factors on naming speed, accuracy, and fluency: word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. If stuttering results from an impairment in lexical access, these factors were hypothesized to differentially affect AWS performance on a confrontation naming task.

Method Twenty-five AWS and 25 normally fluent comparison speakers, matched for age and education, participated in a confrontation naming task designed to explore within-speaker performance on naming accuracy, speed, and fluency based on stimulus word frequency and neighborhood characteristics. Accuracy, fluency, and reaction time (from acoustic waveform analysis) were computed.

Results In general, AWS demonstrated the same effects of lexical factors on their naming as did adults who do not stutter. However, accuracy of naming was reduced for AWS. Stuttering rate was influenced by word frequency but not other factors.

Conclusions Results suggest that AWS could have a fundamental deficit in lexical retrieval, but this deficit is unlikely to be at the level of the word’s abstract phonological representation. Implications for further research are discussed.

Acknowledgments
We particularly thank Darlene Foster, Laura Gutowksi, and Katya Rozanova for their work testing participants and analyzing data, and the National Stuttering Association Research Review Board for allowing us to test participants at their national meeting. A portion of this data was presented at the 2005 Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association meeting in San Diego, CA. We also thank the following students for assistance either in participant testing, data analysis, or data coding: Emilie Clingerman, Nicole Craver, Akiko Elders, Jamie Fisher, Lisa King, James Liu, Mirza Lugo, Amanda McAdoo, Abimbola Odukoya, Emily Singer, and Jenni Zobler.
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