Theoretical/Review Article  |   December 2006
The Genetic Bases of Speech Sound Disorders: Evidence From Spoken and Written Language
Author Notes
  • Contact author: Barbara Lewis, Behavioral Pediatrics and Psychology 6038, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-6038. E-mail: barbara.lewis@case.edu.
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Psychogenic Disorders / Language
Theoretical/Review Article   |   December 2006
The Genetic Bases of Speech Sound Disorders: Evidence From Spoken and Written Language
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2006, Vol. 49, 1294-1312. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2006/093)
History: Received July 25, 2005 , Revised January 5, 2006 , Accepted March 22, 2006
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 2006, Vol. 49, 1294-1312. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2006/093)
History: Received July 25, 2005; Revised January 5, 2006; Accepted March 22, 2006
Web of Science® Times Cited: 34

The purpose of this article is to review recent findings suggesting a genetic susceptibility for speech sound disorders (SSD), the most prevalent communication disorder in early childhood. The importance of genetic studies of SSD and the hypothetical underpinnings of these genetic findings are reviewed, as well as genetic associations of SSD with other language and reading disabilities. The authors propose that many genes contribute to SSD. They further hypothesize that some genes contribute to SSD disorders alone, whereas other genes influence both SSD and other written and spoken language disorders. The authors postulate that underlying common cognitive traits, or endophenotypes, are responsible for shared genetic influences of spoken and written language. They review findings from their genetic linkage study and from the literature to illustrate recent developments in this area. Finally, they discuss challenges for identifying genetic influence on SSD and propose a conceptual framework for study of the genetic basis of SSD.

Acknowledgment
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Grant DC00528 (Barbara A. Lewis, principal investigator), NIH-NIDCD Grant 1 RO3 DC004005 (Sudha K. Iyengar, principal investigator), and Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Career Development Programs Grant 8K12RR023264 from the National Center for Research Resources (Catherine Stein, principal investigator). We wish to express our appreciation to the speech-language pathologists who assisted us in recruiting participants and to the families who generously agreed to participate.
Some of the analyses were performed using the program package S.A.G.E. (2003  [Release 4.5]), which is supported by the U.S. Public Health Resource Grant RR03655 from the National Center for Research Resources.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access