Punishment of Expectancy Responses by Stutterers Each of three adult stutterers spoke spontaneously for a number of sessions. During baserate the subjects depressed a hand switch each time they expected to stutter. During conditioning each hand-switch depression produced a 10-second “time-out from speaking.” For one subject, punishing expectancy responses markedly decreased the frequency of expectancy responses, ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1971
Punishment of Expectancy Responses by Stutterers
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Christine M. Harris
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Richard R. Martin
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Samuel K. Haroldson
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1971
Punishment of Expectancy Responses by Stutterers
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1971, Vol. 14, 710-717. doi:10.1044/jshr.1404.710
History: Received March 19, 1970
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1971, Vol. 14, 710-717. doi:10.1044/jshr.1404.710
History: Received March 19, 1970

Each of three adult stutterers spoke spontaneously for a number of sessions. During baserate the subjects depressed a hand switch each time they expected to stutter. During conditioning each hand-switch depression produced a 10-second “time-out from speaking.” For one subject, punishing expectancy responses markedly decreased the frequency of expectancy responses, but the percentage of words stuttered decreased very little. For a second subject, simply depressing a hand switch contingent upon each expectancy response (with no subsequent “time-out from speaking”) resulted in a reduction in both expectancy and stuttering. For a third subject, punishing expectancy responses resulted in a marked reduction in stuttering, but a much smaller decrease in expectancy responding.

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