The Effects on Stuttering Frequency of Pairing Punishment (Response Cost) with Reinforcement Three adult male stutterers spoke spontaneously during five experimental segments. In Segment I (baserate) stuttering frequency was counted; no response-produced stimuli were delivered. In Segment II (punishment 1) an add-subtract counter was activated; each stuttering response produced subtraction of one point. During Segment III (pairing) each stuttering response produced subtraction ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 1971
The Effects on Stuttering Frequency of Pairing Punishment (Response Cost) with Reinforcement
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jerome A. Halvorson
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 1971
The Effects on Stuttering Frequency of Pairing Punishment (Response Cost) with Reinforcement
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1971, Vol. 14, 356-364. doi:10.1044/jshr.1402.356
History: Received January 22, 1970
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, June 1971, Vol. 14, 356-364. doi:10.1044/jshr.1402.356
History: Received January 22, 1970

Three adult male stutterers spoke spontaneously during five experimental segments. In Segment I (baserate) stuttering frequency was counted; no response-produced stimuli were delivered. In Segment II (punishment 1) an add-subtract counter was activated; each stuttering response produced subtraction of one point. During Segment III (pairing) each stuttering response produced subtraction of one point; and if the first word following was fluent, then 10 points were added. In Segment IV (extinction) subtraction and addition of points were withheld. During Segment V (punishment 2) one point was again subtracted for each stuttering.

Response cost (punishment) decreased stuttering below the baserate frequency for all three subjects; but when reintroduced after pairing with reinforcement, the rate of stuttering did not immediately decrease for one subject. These data indicate that response cost may be used as a punisher of stuttering behavior, and suggest that punishment for stuttering may acquire discriminative attributes after systematic pairing with a reinforcing stimulus.

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