Immediate versus Delayed Consequences of Stuttering Responses Frequency of stuttering under three conditions was studied. Twelve young adult stutterers read a list of 50 sentences five consecutive times. In one condition, electric shock was administered contiguous to each observed occurrence of stuttering on a word. In another condition, each subject received a shock for each word stuttered ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 1974
Immediate versus Delayed Consequences of Stuttering Responses
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • J. David Williams
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
  • Randall B. Martin
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 1974
Immediate versus Delayed Consequences of Stuttering Responses
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1974, Vol. 17, 569-575. doi:10.1044/jshr.1704.569
History: Received March 14, 1973 , Accepted April 10, 1974
 
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, December 1974, Vol. 17, 569-575. doi:10.1044/jshr.1704.569
History: Received March 14, 1973; Accepted April 10, 1974

Frequency of stuttering under three conditions was studied. Twelve young adult stutterers read a list of 50 sentences five consecutive times. In one condition, electric shock was administered contiguous to each observed occurrence of stuttering on a word. In another condition, each subject received a shock for each word stuttered during the reading of a sentence, but the shocks were not delivered until the sentence was completed. A control condition employed no shock. No significant difference was found between the two shock conditions, but there was significantly less stuttering throughout the shock conditions than in the control condition, and significant adaptation occurred in all three conditions. The hypothesis of a greater punishment effect occurring under contiguous shock than under noncontiguous (delayed) shock was not supported.

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